ISSN: 2056-3736 (Online Version) | 2056-3728 (Print Version)

A VAR model for Fiscal Multipliers and the Future of Fiscal Policy in European Monetary Union

Theodore Chatziapostolou and Nikolina Kosteletou

Correspondence: Theodore Chatziapostolou,

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

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Fiscal multipliers have been a core issue for the effectiveness of fiscal policy. During the financial economic crisis of 2007–8 there has been a revival of interest in re-estimating the size of the multipliers. Empirical literature showed that fiscal multipliers are dependent either on structural characteristics of the economy (exchange rate regime, openness, etc.), or on business cycles or on fiscal characteristics (level of debt, the choice between expenditures and taxes, etc.) of the economies. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this discussion by developing a VAR model to compute the effects of fiscal policy to output for the 19 member states of EMU for the period 2002-2019. Controlling for size of the countries, level of Debt to GDP ratio and openness. Based on these findings we will discuss the difficulties of fiscal consolidation in EMU economies. We argue that EMU is facing a deadlock, the necessity of fiscal consolidation on the one hand and the unavoidable risk of uneven results of fiscal contraction in the member states due to different size of multipliers on the other hand. The only alternative for EMU is to take a step forward towards a fiscal union. In this case fiscal policy should be balance different political priorities and preferences and at the same time be timely and effective.


  Fiscal policy, European Monetary Union, debt, Fiscal cooperation, Fiscal multipliers


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